DNA marking consists of applying a DNA identifier to the surface of a microcircuit. A unique code, which can’t be replicated, re-engineered, or digitally copied is incorporated into the ink of the DNA mark. Photo courtesy of Paul Crank
The DTEK system optically analyzes the surface of an electronic component. Photo courtesy of ChromoLogic/Covisus.
Shown here are dummy dielets with a footprint the size of a dust speck that affix to individual chips. If fully developed as envisioned in DARPA’s SHIELD program, each dielet will host up to 100,000 transistors and incorporate a range of features and functions, including two-way radio communication, on-board encryption, an energy-harvesting function that avoids the need for a battery, and passive sensors for tamper detection. The dielets would consume less than 50 microwatts and cost “the equivalent of the portion of a penny occupied by Lincoln’s head,” according to DARPA—i.e., a fraction of a cent. Photo courtesy of DARPA